Islam Itu Agama, Nusantara Itu Budaya

Prof.Dr.KH. Ali Mustafa Ya’qub, MA

(Imam Besar Masjid Istiqlal, Jakarta Pusat)

Kalau “Islam Nusantara” itu Islam di Nusantara, maka TEPAT. Kalau “Islam Nusantara” itu Islam yang bercorak budaya Nusantara, dengan catatan : selama budaya Nusantara itu tidak bertentangan dengan Islam, maka itu juga TEPAT. Namun kalau “Islam Nusantara” itu Islam yang bersumber dari apa yang ada di Nusantara, maka ituTIDAK TEPAT. Sebab sumber agama Islam itu Al-Qur’an dan Hadits. Apa yang datang dari Nabi Muhammad itu ada dua hal yaitu AGAMA dan BUDAYA. Yang wajib kita ikuti adalah agama: aqidah dan ibadah. Itu wajib, tidak bisa ditawar lagi. Tapi kalau budaya, kita boleh ikuti dan boleh juga tidak diikuti. Contoh budaya: Nabi pakai sorban, naik unta, dan makan roti. Demikian pula budaya Nusantara. Selama budaya Nusantara tidak bertentangan dengan ajaran Islam, maka boleh diikuti. Saya pakai sarung itu budaya Nusantara dan itu tidak bertentangan dengan ajaran Islam. Shalat pakai koteka itu juga budaya Nusantara, tapi itu bertentangan dengan ajaran Islam, maka itu tidak boleh. Jadi harus dibedakan antara agama dan budaya.

Islam yang bercorak budaya Nusantara itu boleh saja sepanjang tidak bertentangan dengan Islam. Tapi kalau Islam yang bersumber dari apa yang ada di Nusantara, baik aqidah maupun ibadah harus asli dari Nusantara, maka itu tidak tepat. Tapi saya katakan Islam itu BUKAN Arab sentris. Islam itu apa kata Al-Qur’an dan Hadits, bukan Arab sentris. Tidak semua budaya Arab harus kita ambil. Sebab ada budaya Arab yang bertentangan dengan ajaran Islam. Contohnya, orang- orang minum khamr di zaman Nabi dan beristri lebih dari empat. Tadi saya katakan, Nabi pakai sorban, apa kita wajib pakai sorban? Tidak ada hadits yang menunjukkan keutamaan memakai sorban. Tidak ada hadits yang mengatakan memakai sorban itu mendapat pahala. Para ulama mengatakan sorban itu budaya Nabi, budaya kaum Nabi pada zamannya.

Sepanjang budaya tidak bertentangan dengan ajaran Islam, maka kita boleh mengambilnya. Ini masuk wilayah muamalah. Silakan ikuti budaya Arab, silakan pakai sorban. Tapi jangan mengatakan orang yang tidak pakai sorban, tidak mengikuti Nabi. Saya pukul kalau ada orang yang mengatakan seperti itu. Silakan makan roti karena mengikuti budaya Nabi. Tapi jangan mengatakan orang yang makan nasi, tidak mengikuti Nabi. Demikian juga budaya Nusantara. Sepanjang budaya Nusantara tidak bertentangan dengan Islam, silakan ambil. Islam sangat memberikan peluang bagi budaya, selama budaya itu tidak bertentangan dengan ajaran Islam, boleh kita ambil. Silakan berkreasi dan ambil budaya apapun, selama tidak bertentangan dengan ajaran Islam.


“Islam Itu Agama, Nusantara Itu Budaya. Tidak Bisa Disatukan Antara Agama Dan Budaya”

Saya mengatakan tidak ada pertentangan antara NU dan “Wahabi”. Yang ada adalah perbedaan antara ulama-ulama sumber rujukan NU dengan ulama-ulama sumber rujukan “Wahabi”. Perbedaan ini ada jauh sebelum NU dan “Wahabi” lahir. Jangankan NU dan “Wahabi”, Imam Syafi’i yang hanya satu orang, bisa berbeda pendapat ketika berada di Baghdad dan Mesir. Antara ulama-ulama mazhab Syafi’i juga bisa berbeda pendapat. Tapi perbedaan itu tidak akan keluar dari dua karakter, pertama, tidak menyebabkan kekafiran dan kedua, perbedaan itu sudah ada sebelum NU dan “Wahabi” ada. Jadi tidak perlu dipermasalahkan. Kalau ada yang mengatakan “Wahabi” itu suka mengkafirkan dan membid’ahkan , maka itu fitnah. Saya belajar “Wahabi” 9 tahun. Di dalam kitab-kitab “Wahabi” tidak ada yang menyatakan selain kelompok “Wahabi” itu kafir. Itu fitnah untuk mengadu domba NU dan “Wahabi”. Dan yang memfitnah itu adalah AGEN ZIONIS. Kalau ada yang mengatakan Tuhannya bukan Allah, baru itu kafir.

Ketika itu, istilah yang lazim bukan “Wahabi” tapi salafi atau taimi. Banyak pandangan beliau yang sama dengan “Wahabi”. Kitab-kitab beliau banyak merujuk pada kitab-kitab Imam Ibnu Taimiyyah. Imam Ibnu Taimiyyah itu rujukannya “Wahabi”. Tapi kata beliau, “Banyak salafi-salafi yang palsu.” Palsu karena tidak mengikuti ajaran Imam Ibnu Taimiyyah. Contohnya, mereka menilai orang-orang yang bertawasul dengan nama Nabi Muhammad itu misalnya musyrik atau kafir. Padahal Imam Ibnu Taimiyyah membolehkan itu.

Sewaktu Saya di pesantren Tebu Ireng, kitab ilmu hadits karya Kiai Mahfudz itu dipelajari. Ulama-ulama lokal seperti Kiai Mahfud Termas asal Pacitan dan Kiai Nawawi asal Banten, juga menulis kitab, tapi menulisnya di Mekkah. Bisa jadi Kiai Hasyim ‘Asyari menulis kitabnya di Mekkah karena beliau pernah tinggal di sana.

Pertama, kita harus membedakan antara AGAMA dan BUDAYAAgama : aqidah dan syariah, kita harus mengikuti Rasulullah. Sementara, budaya itu masuk muamalah. Budaya apa pun, termasuk budaya Arab selama tidak bertentangan dengan ajaran Islam, silakan. Tapi hati-hati, sebab bisa saja orang pakai sorban itu dalam rangka mencari popularitas. Ketika semua orang tidak pakai sorban, tapi ada 1 orang pakai sorban, maka itu diharamkan dalam Islam karena sorban itu menjadi pakaian popularitas. Menurut seorang Ulama Arab, Syaikh Muhammad bin Shalih al Utsaimin mengatakan, hal itu menunjukkan kesombongan. Penampilan itu menunjukkan seorang merasa lebih mirip nabi. Itu arogan dan tidak bagus. Kedua, NU dan “Wahabi” TIDAK ADA PERTENTANGAN, yang adaPERBEDAAN. Persamaannya banyak dan perbedaannya sedikit. Perbedaannya itu tidak menimbulkan kekafiran dan perbedaan itu tidak terjadi setelah NU dan “Wahabi” ada. Jadi perbedaannya hanya dalam hal furu’iyyah, bukan hal yang prinsip.

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