Mengenal “Flu Babi” : Tingkat Penyebaran Dan Tindakan Preventifnya

Diterjemahkan oleh dari bahasa mexico oleh : Noprizal Erhan, Anggota Group Circulation Of QI for Health facebook.

Apakah Flu Babi itu?
Flu babi adalah penyakit saluran pernafasan yang disebabkan oleh virus yang sangat menular, ada tiga jenis virus (A, B, C) yang dapat mengubah (change), dan ada beberapa subtipe. Dan yg terpenting diketahui adalah karena ia mampu menyerang semua usia, dan lokasi dalam mutasi-mutasi virus yg sering menyebabkan komplikasi serius dan bahkan kematian pada banyak orang, sering terjadi pada anak-anak dan orang tua.

Apakah flu itu sama dg flu biasa yg disebabkan udara dingin?
Tidak, walaupun keduanya adalah pernafasan akut dan gejala penyakit yang umum, maka mahluk yg kecil yang menyebabkan flu babi berbeda dengan flu biasa (common cold-influenza) .

Bagaimana cara kerja flu bisa menular?
Dari orang ke orang melalui secretions (proses pengeluaran) dari mulut dan hidung (batuk, bersin, berbicara, bernyanyi) atau kontak langsung (tangan, walau tidak terkena lendir/ludah pasien. Sangat contagious/menular (3-7 hari setelah gejala awal) dan risiko yang lebih tinggi jika terjadi di ruang tertutup (kamar, nurseries/ruang perawatan, sekolah, perawatan di rumah, ruang darurat, dll). Dapat menjadi epidemi/pandemi ke seluruh dunia dalam waktu 3 sampai 6 bulan.

Bagaimana mengenali gejala orang terkena flu babi?
* Demam lebih dari 38 ° C.
* Sering batuk dan intens.
* Sakit kepala.
* Kurang nafsu makan.
* Hidung tersumbat/sengau
* Lain-lain rasa tidak enak.

Bagaimana mendiagnosa “flu babi”?
Kita perlu belajar bagaimana seorang dokter melakukan pemeriksaan klinis secara rinci mengenai latar belakang dan pemeriksaan terhadap pasien-pasien lain, kontak pasien dg orang lain dan perjalanan pasien (kemana saja?). Diagnosis terhadap virus dengan mengidentifikasi secretions/pengelua ran dari hidung atau pangkal tenggorokan (virus isolasi) selama 24-72 jam pertama inisiasi penyakit, atau melalui pengecekan darah untuk mengidentifikasi zat antibodi-nya.

Apakah “flu babi” bisa berkomplikasi (dengan penyakit lain)?
Ya, gambaran tentang flu babi nampak tidak terkenali (sebelumnya) dan tidak terkait dengan penyakit lainnya namun dapat menghasilkan komplikasi, terutama pernafasan (otitis, sinusitis, rhinitis, radang paru-paru, Bronchopneumonia, merintangi radang tenggorokan) , jantung atau bahkan kematian, sering terpantau menjadi penularan yg meluas atau epidemik. Sangatlah penting untuk memantau anak-anak jika menerima pengobatan aspirin (mungkin encephalitis) .

Adakah peluang mengobati penyakit flu babi?
Flu babi disebabkan oleh virus, dan belum ada obat yg manjur utk menuntaskannya, tetapi ada obat yang berfungsi utk mengurangi/memperla mbat laju kegawatan penyakit, memperpendek dan mengurangi gejala-gejala jika masih terpantau dalam waktu 48 jam pertama rasa sakit. Penggunaan obat-obatan adalah sangat sensitif, hanya dokter dapat menentukan apakah pasien harus dirawat sebab mereka juga tidak bebas menjalani kontak dg manusia lain (yg tidak terinfeksi virus).

Bagaimana saya dapat mencegah flu babi?
Ada vaksin sebagai cara terbaik untuk mencegah flu jenis ini, maka setiap tahunnya telah disiapkan dengan mempertimbangkan jenis virus yang beredar di dunia, tetapi tidak (terlalu) baik bagi orang-orang yang alergi terhadap protein telur, sebuah pengalaman serius mengenai reaksi terhadap vaksin pernah dialami pada peristiwa “Guillain-Barre syndrome” (enam bulan setelah vaksinasi).

PANDUAN KEPADA MASYARAKAT UMUM :
* Hindari kontak dengan orang-orang yang memiliki infeksi pernafasan flu babi.
* Jangan menyapa atau mencium tangannya.
* Jangan berbagi makanan, penggunaan cangkir, piring, atau peralatan makan lainnya.
* Berikan kebebasan sinar matahari memasuki ruang dalam rumah, kantor, dan ruang-ruang tertutup lainnya (utk membakar virus).
* Jaga ruang dapur, kamar mandi, handle pintu, railings/pagar tangga, mainan anak-anak, telepon atau artikel-artikel/ majalah yg digunakan tetap dalam keadaan BERSIH.
* Jika terjadi demam mendadak, batuk-batuk, sakit kepala, sakit pada otot dan sendi, segera periksakan diri ke dokter atau unit kesehatan yg ada.
* Hangatkan badan dan hindari perubahan suhu mendadak (yg menyebabkan ketidakseimbangan tubuh sehingga menjadi flu).
* Makan buah-buahan dan sayuran yang kaya vitamin A dan C (wortel, pepaya, jambu biji, jeruk kepruk, jeruk, lemon dan nanas).
* Seringlah mencuci tangan dengan sabun dan air.
* Hindari berkecimpung dalam lingkungan yg terkontaminasi virus tsb.
* Tidak merokok di tempat tertutup atau di dekat anak-anak, orang tua atau pasien.
* Ke dokter segera jika menemui/mengalami gejala-gejala.

Apa langkah-langkah yang direkomendasikan untuk mereka yang menderita flu babi?
* Tinggallah di rumah, menghindari berpergian ke pusat-pusat kerja, sekolah atau tempat di mana terdapat konsentrasi banyak orang (teater, bioskop, bar, bis, metro, klub malam, pesta, dll). Ini akan mencegah menjangkiti orang lain dari diri Anda.
* Tutup mulut dan hidung dengan tisu/saputangan ketika berbicara, batuk, dan bersin. Ini akan mencegah orang-orang di sekitar anda menjadi sakit.
* Hindari menyentuh mata, mulut dan hidung orang lain utk menghindari virus menyebar
* Flu dapat dicegah melalui penerapan vaksin yang disiapkan sesuai dengan jenis virus yang beredar di dunia), harus mendapatkan divaksinasi setiap tahun.
* Hindari debu, asap bergerak dan zat lainnya yang dapat mengganggu pernafasan dan membuat anak-anak lebih rentan terhadap penyakit.
* Gunakan cubrebocas, buang tisu hasil bersin ke kantong plastik dan bersinlah di ujung ruangan (jauh dari orang lain).
* Jika setelah 24 jam tanpa gejala, Anda dapat bekerja normal kembali.

Terakhir Diperbaharui:
Jumat 24 Apr 2009 pada 13:15 oleh Sweet Buenrostro (staf Departemen Kesehatan Mexico).

Diterjemahkan oleh Noprizal Erhan pada 28 April 2009 dari sebuah situs berbahasa Spanyol (Kantor Pusat Departemen Kesehatan Mexico)

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